September 28, 2020

Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology. Rudolph Carnap. [In this essay Carnap is concerned with the question of the “reality” of the sorts of what he calls “abstract. Rudolf Carnap’s article “Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology” deals with the implications of accepting language which refers to abstract entities. Empiricists. Carnap, “Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology”. Major Premise: Accepting the existence abstract entities involves a pragmatic decision to use a certain linguistic.

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New variables, “p,” “q,” etc. Revue International de Philosophie 4 We apply the term ‘proposition’ to any entities of a certain logical type, namely, those that may be expressed by declarative sentences in a language” p. Darren Bradley – – Synthese 5: Since these empiricists found no abstract entities within the realm of sense-data, they either denied their existence, or else made a futile attempt to define universals in terms of particulars.

This conception, which seems to deviate considerably from customary ways of thinking, is explained in his article “Semantics and Abstract Objects,” Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences80 Another strong hang-up empiricists have is with the concept of designation.

The semantkcs of this statement presupposes that our language L contains the forms of expressions which we have called the framework of numbers, in particular, numerical variables and the general term “number. On Ontologj on Carnap on Ontology. However, if eemantics look at the basic anti-metaphysical and pro-scientific attitude of most nominalists and the same holds for many materialists and realists in the modern sensedisregarding their occasional pseudo-theoretical formulations, then it is, of course, true to say that the Vienna Circle was much closer to those philosophers than to their opponents.

From the internal questions we must clearly distinguish external questions, i. Richard Boyd – – Philosophical Studies 61 1: The acceptance of the thing language leads on the basis of observations made, also to the acceptance, belief, and assertion of certain statements.

History of Western Philosophy.

Generally speaking, any expression of the form “‘. Then, variables of the new type are introduced. Two Kinds of a Priori Infallibility. Kane – – International Philosophical Quarterly 7 1: Above all, it must not be interpreted as referring to an assumption, belief, or assertion of “the reality of the entities.


Here again there are internal questions, e. The physical state of a space-time point is described either with the help of qualitative predicates, such as ‘hot’, or by ascribing numbers as values of a physical magnitude such as mass, temperature, etc. Logic, Semantics and Ontology.

Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology. —

On the other hand, the decision to use three rather than two or four spatial coordinates carna; strongly suggested, farnap still not forced upon us, by the result of common observations. This acceptance is not in need of a theoretical justification except with respect to expediency and fruitfulnessbecause it does not imply a belief or assertion.

The fact that in these statements no reference to a subject an observer or knower occurs nothing like: Find it on Scholar.

Now we may introduce new variables, say ” f ,” ” g ,” etc. He says that the acceptance and use of thing language should not be interpreted as meaning that one believes in the reality of the thing world, but merely as an acceptance of a certain form of language; to accept rules for forming statements and for ontoologyaccepting, or rejecting them. With the help of the new variables, empiriciwm sentences may be formed, e. Prospects for a Naturalist Theory of the a Priori.

The last sentence is an internal assertion.

However, the external statement, the philosophical statement of the reality of properties — a special case of the thesis of the reality of universals — is devoid of cognitive content. New Essays on the Foundations of Ontology. An external question is of a problematic character which is in need of closer examination.

Influenced by ideas of Ludwig Wittgenstein, the Circle rejected both the thesis of the reality of the external world and the thesis of its irreality as pseudo-statements; 6 the same was the case for both the thesis of the reality of universals abstract entities, in our present terminology and the nominalistic thesis that they are not real and that their alleged names are not names of anything but merely flatus vocis.

If, however, the statement is meant in an external sense, then it is non-cognitive. Carnap – – Revue Internationale de Philosophie 4: Science Logic and Mathematics. You must accept these as true statements if you accept the framework of numbers.


This is a matter of fact, based upon the content of our experiences. Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology.

But this must not be interpreted as if it meant his acceptance of a belief in the reality of the thing world; there is no such belief or assertion or assumption, because it is not a theoretical question. Perhaps the discussions in the present paper emiricism help enpiricism clarifying the role of the system of linguistic rules for the introduction of a framework for entities on the one hand, and that of extra-systematic explanations concerning the nature of the entities on the other.

Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology

Brett Topey – forthcoming – Philosophical Studies: This is analogous to the procedure of some laymen who by correctly criticizing the ether picture or other visualizations of physical theories, thought they had refuted those theories.

Therefore the answers are here analytic, i. Since a follows from c and ba is likewise analytic. This gives me the right to use the linguistic forms of the numerical framework and to make semantical statements about numbers as designata of numerals. A question of this kind may be either empirical or logical; accordingly a true answer is either factually true or analytic.

Existence or reality is ascribed only to the data; the constructs are not real entities; the corresponding linguistic expressions are merely ways of speech not actually designating anything reminiscent of the nominalists’ flatus vocis. By granting freedom to use any form of expression which is useful, the work will sooner or later lead to the elimination of those forms which have no useful function. Rudolf Camap – – In Steven Luper ed. The use of three spatial coordinates is not forced on us, but is strongly suggested by common observation.

Charles Landesman – – New York: Therefore the word “number” and numerical variables must not be used unless a way were found to introduce them as merely abbreviating devices, a way of translating them into the nominalistic thing language.

Rudolf Carnap – – Revue Internationale de Philosophie 4