October 7, 2020

The electroretinogram (ERG) is a diagnostic test that measures the . The multifocal ERG (mfERG) simultaneously measures local retinal. Multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) is an objective, noninvasive examination for the assessment of visual function. It enables the stimulation. Abstract. AIMS To describe the topography of multifocal electroretinograms ( ERGs) and to explore its diagnostic value in patients with Stargardt’s macular.

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James Dewar of Scotland subsequently performed it in humans inhowever widespread clinical application did not occur untilwhen American psychologist Lorin Riggs introduced the contact-lens electrode.

After introducing yourself and the procedure, dilate the subject’s eyes. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This includes 6 protocols named according to the strength of the stimulus in candela. During multifocal ERG testing, the patient views a rapidly changing sequence on the monitor. You must be signed in multjfocal post a comment. The patient views a monitor displaying a rapidly changing sequence of hexagons.

If using a monopolar recording electrode choose a location on head for the negative pole such as forehead, mastoid or earlobe. The hyperpolarization of the photoreceptor cells results in a decrease in the amount of neurotransmitter released, which subsequently leads to a depolarization of the post-synaptic bipolar cells.

Multifocal Electroretinograms | Protocol

Implicit time or peak time is a measure of the time interval from onset of the stimulus to the peak of the b-wave. Differing field sizes varying from 3 degrees to 18 degrees and light stimulus frequencies have been used in the various methods, however each technique deals with the challenge of limiting amount of light scattered outside the focal test area. Oscillatory potentials OP are high-frequency, low-amplitude wavelets on the ascending limb of the b-wave with a frequency of about to Hz.

Unable to load video. Simultaneously reviewing the complementary presentations of the data often lends greater insight as different effects can be more clearly seen in the different representations. Ganzfeld ERGs in Stargardt’s disease are non-specific.


The computer cross-correlates the fluctuations in voltage with each change in the m-sequence. Please recommend JoVE to your librarian. KumarHema L. The full-field ERG Ganzfeld; ffERG measures the stimulation of the entire retina with a flashlight source under dark-adapted scotopic and light-adapted photopic types of retinal adaptation.


The bipolar-cell depolarization increases the level of extracellular potassium, subsequently generating a transretinal current. The ERG is composed of electrical potentials contributed by different cell types within the retina, and the stimulus conditions flash or pattern stimulus, whether a background light is present, and the colors of the stimulus and background can elicit stronger response from certain components.

Page Discussion View form View source History. Birdshot chorioretinopathy Figure 3is an uncommon retinal disorder that is peculiar in that the first electrophysiological anomaly is a slowing of cone physiological response.

The visual stimuli depicted here, were produced by a LCD microdisplay subtending 35 – 40 degrees horizontally and 30 – 35 degrees vertically of visual field, and calibrated electorretinograma produce multifocal flash intensities of 2. Technique and Normal Recordings A typical multifocal ERG recording requires electrodes, an amplifier, a computer, a stimulating monitor and a monitoring camera.

What is the Electroretinogram ERG? Original article contributed by: Initially a transient supernormal response then negative eoectrorretinograma followed by non-detectable response in severe cases rod function more affected than multifoal reduction of b-wave amplitude more than a-wave. The response densities are highest at the fovea and decrease sharply in the first 5 degrees See Figure 1.

Because the number of cone photoreceptors per area varies for different parts of the retina, the size of the hexagons is adjusted, so about the same number of cones will be stimulated by each hexagon.

A variety of techniques have been described in the literature for recording fERGs. Maturi electrorretinograka vitreoretinal surgery at Midwest Eye Institute.

The clinical example year-old patient with soft drusen, visual acuity: It is this transretinal current that depolarizes the radially oriented Muller cells and generates the corneal-positive deflection. Scotomas and retinal dysfunction can be mapped and quantified. Multifocal ERGs superimposed on Humphrey visual mulifocal showing agreement with field loss. Components of mfERG systems vary between manufacturers.


The first human ERG recordings were obtained in by James Dewar, but recordings were not electrorretinograja enough for quantitative measurements until the introduction of the contact lens electrode in by Lorrin Riggs. Photopic cone responses can be obtained either before or after dark-adaptation.

In demyelinating optic neuropathy, the PERG is relatively normal, while it may be abnormal in ischemic optic neuropathies. An eoectrorretinograma error occurred.

Get cutting-edge science videos from J o VE sent straight to your electorretinograma every month. There are several types of recording electrodes. Ramkumar, MDK. Reduced scotopic amplitudes which improve to normal values after longer variable perior of dark adaptation.

Pay attention that the subject is comfortable and emphasize importance of maintaining fixation and being relaxed. Privacy policy About EyeWiki Disclaimers. In addition to its clinical diagnostic purpose, the ERG can be used during the course of drug development and in clinical trails for electroreetinograma ocular safety and efficacy of new or existing drugs and treatment modalities.

This page has been accessedtimes. This overall contour of the response is present in all normal subjects, even if the actual response density varies.

P50 evaluates the macular function. Research Our main focus is to investigate the normal age-related changes in multifocal ERG responses and to find out and quantify the underlying optical and neural factors contributing to those age-related changes see recent publications.

The multifocal ERG mfERG simultaneously measures local retinal responses from up to retinal locations within the central 30 degrees mapped topographically. The ERG can provide important diagnostic information on a variety of retinal disorders including, but not limited to congenital stationary night blindness, Leber congenital amaurosis, and cancer-associated retinopathy. The visual loss began suddenly and has remained stationary for some time. He has a special interest in difficult to diagnosis retinal diseases including toxicities.