September 27, 2020

Pathobiology of Heterakis gallinarum mono-infection and co-infection with Histomonas meleagridis in layer chickens. Schwarz A(1), Gauly M, Abel H, Daş G . We investigated whether density related effects are directly controlling lifetime fecundity of Heterakis gallinarum. Daily total numbers of H. infecting Brazilian turkeys are reported. The intestinal nematode Heterakis gallinarum appeared with a prevalence of 70% in the infected birds.

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Kaufmann, ; Olsen, Other Physical Features ectothermic heterothermic bilateral symmetry Sexual Dimorphism female larger Range length 7 to 15 mm 0. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Primary infections are usually not apparent.

Heterakis dispar, Heterakis gallinaruk.

So far no vaccine is available against Heterakis worms. There are no known positive effects of Heterakis gallinarum on humans.

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Birds become infected after eating infective eggs either directly with contaminated food or water, or indirectly when eating earthworms or flies. Blackhead disease affects mainly the liver heteramis cecum of infected birds, causing lesions and ulcers that are eventually fatal. Heterakis gallinarum is a parasite found hetsrakis the cecum of numerous galliform birds including chickens, turkeys, and pheasants.


Within the egg, the larvae develop to the infective second stage. The prepatent time is 24—30 days. Reproduction begins in the host’s cecum when a male worm coils around a female worm, utilizing two uneven spicules on his posterior end to hold the female in place. Journal of Parasitology46 Embryos are stored in the female uterus until their release into the host’s feces. Heterakis worms have direct life cycle.

Gallinaru, ; Lund, Kaufmann, ; Olsen, Nematode Parasites of Veretebrates: Behind the lip region are peg-like sensory structures which function both as chemoreceptors to detect chemicals, as well as mechanoreceptors to detect motion.

Olsen, ; Roberts and Janovy, Male worms are fully mature 14 days after they have infected the host. Blackhead disease affects the liver and cecum of infected birds, causing enough damage to be fatal if left untreated.

Languages Cebuano Svenska Winaray Edit links. Neotropical living in the southern part of the New World.

Heterakis gallinarum – Wikipedia

Kaufmann, ; Lund, Habitat Regions temperate tropical terrestrial Terrestrial Biomes savanna or grassland Other Habitat Features urban suburban agricultural Heterakiz Description Heterakis gallinarum has a typical roundworm morphology with features such as a cuticle, an esophagus ending in a valved bulb, and three papillae-lined lips and alae. Geographic Range Heterakis gallinarum is found worldwide in areas where galliform birds live. Implications for survival of H.


All these measures are especially important for young birds, particularly for turkeys, which are likely to suffer more from Heterakis infections. Predilection site of adult Heterakis worms is the cecum. The reproductive potential of Heterakis gallinarum in various species of galliform birds: See also Tropical savanna and grassland biome.

International Journal for Parasitology4 5: In other words, Central and South America.


To ensure that they remain worm-free the animals have to be dewormed periodically, depending on the local epidemiological, ecological and climatic conditions. Kaufmann, ; Lund, They are particularly harmful and often fatal for turkeys.

Diagnosis commonly is through the presence of eggs in host feces. To prevent or at least reduce Heterakis infections it is recommended to keep the birds’ bedding as dry as possible and to frequently change it, because development of the worm’s eggs needs humidity.

Birds can ingest infected H.